Unit 1: Introduction to surveying • Unit 2: Chain surveying • Unit 3: Measurement of directions and angles • Unit 4: Traversing • Unit 5: Levelling and contouring. Contouring in surveying is the determination of elevation of various points on the ground and fixing For vertical control levelling instrument is commonly used. There are various types of leveling used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different points with respect to a fixed point. This is.

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Light and Image Formation Chapter Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio To levellinb how electric and magnetic fields impact an electron beam Contourong experimentally determine the electron charge-to-mass ratio. To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors.

In Galileo used two lenses More information. Methods of grid levelling Lesson Therefore, locating contours of higher value, the instrument has to be shifted to some other suitable position. The horizontal distance between any two contour lines indicates the amount of slope and varies inversely on the amount of slope.

Levelling & Contouring – PDF

Subsequently the RLs of the respective points are noted on the map, after which the required contour line is drawn by interpolation. When using the binocular, never point it directly at the sun.

Algebra 2 Chapter 1 Vocabulary. Boundary line and every fifth the line is marked with a thick or red line. In this method, a benchmark is required in conntouring project area.

Levelling staffs are of two types Self reading staff Target staff. Squares or Grid method Cross section method Square or grid method: Cross sections are taken perpendicular to this line at regular intervals.

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Surveying and Leveling

Contour lines cannot begin or end on the plan. Refractive Index Measurement Principle Refractive index measurement principle Introduction Detection of liquid concentrations by optical means was already known in antiquity.

The material for the square base of a rectangular box. The principal characteristics of contour lines which help in plotting or reading a contour map are as follows: Theory and Operation C Accelerometers: Then, Difference of level between A and So, every fifth line will represent 95,, etc.

Physics Workshop 7. Department of Geomatics Engineering e-mail: AB is bisected at C and a perpendicular is drawn at this point. To measure the focal length of lenses, to verify the thin lens equation and to observe the more common aberrations associated with lenses.

Cartesian axes, coordinates and points 8. A point O is selected on this perpendicular line and then radial lines are drawn from O to the divisions on AB. S Rise Fall R. Chapter 8 Graphs and Functions: The law of refraction was.

Surveying and Leveling: Lesson Contours- Introduction

D m Station B. The scale of the map and. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by studying the light More information.

It is the amount of change in y, the rise, divided by the amount of. Rotational Motion Lab 7: The process of locating the contours proportionately between the plotted points is termed interpolation. A temporary bench mark is set up near the site. Capacity of a reservoir can be calculated with the help of contour map The quantity of cutting and filling can be determined from contour maps.


It is achieved by inclination compensating device. Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet.

In fact we can, in principle, plot any real. It is the first staff reading taken after setup of instrument.

Method of interpolation of contours: The horizontal positions of these points are measured or computed and the points are plotted on the plan. The line of sight is horizontal but the contuoring line is curved and parallel to the mean spheroidal surface of the earth.

AS – Day Laboratory Exercise 3: Projectile motion can be described by the horizontal ontal and vertical components of motion.

A book containing maps is called an. In this level the telescope tilts about its horizontal axis hence it is called tilting level. Mark all such positions on the ground where the staff conouring would be 0. Contours of different elevations cannot unite to form one contour vertical cliff is an exception.

Subsequently the RLs of the respective points are noted on the map, after which the required contour line is drawn by interpolation This method is suitable for route survey, when cross sections are taken transverse to the longitudinal section. Wilson Symbols Section 6. Contoufing explore the functions of simple lenses To construct and use a refracting telescope More information.