Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.
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Drug trafficking in Guatemala has been a marginal business for the gangs, due to the control over trade of existing local criminal organisations with strong links to the state and security forces.
In other cases, businesses seek to shield themselves by working with local distributors linked to the gangs, often family members of the mareros.
Public responses to mara crimes have understandably been dominated by fear. Hide Footnote A recent survey in El Salvador has found that extortion is on the rise and now affects 22 per cent of firms, although only 15 per cent of all incidents are reported, reflecting the lack of confidence in the response capacities of the local police and judiciary.
Primarily under Plan Escoba, prosecutors therefore started stretching and over-interpreting existing laws in order to justify the large-scale detentions. The following statement of President Maduro substantiates this:. Though imprecise, these figures underline the magnitude of the challenge posed by the gangs. Flaws in the quality of data hamper the possibility of establishing clear proportions of homicidal violence produced by maras in the NTCA as compared to other criminal groups.
With disparities in the distribution of land, the contested results of the election in El Salvador fuelled revolutionary movements. The performance and impact of the anti-extortion mobile app described above should be evaluated and taken into account by the neighbouring countries. Following Honduran anti-gang legislation enacted in the early s, massive round-ups bloated prison populations and a growing militarisation of the security system has since represented the main official response to extremely high rates of murder and extortion.
The maras are both victims of extreme social inequity and the perpetrators of brutal acts of violence. Gang Violence and Extortion in Central America This video from Crisis Groups explores the social and economic roots of gang culture and discusses new approaches to minimise the violence of illicit gang activity.
As foreign aid dried up, the right-wing Nationalist Republican Alliance ARENA governments prioritised macroeconomic stability through fiscal discipline over social development and poverty alleviation. However, these cases of accommodation with extortion rackets do not erase the extremes of violence in protection homduras. Hide Footnote Salvadoran prisons are among the most overcrowded in the world, with occupancy standing at The succession of unsuccessful punitive measures is le coming under closer scrutiny across the Northern Triangle.
Even though the Congress did not pass an official anti-gang law, one can argue that the mere proposals and the role of the judiciary constituted formal support. The security they may enjoy inside their community can involve restrictions on their freedom of movement, or constraints on access to the community. There is no better way of starting this process than for the maras to guarantee non-interference in public buildings, above all schools, and freedom of movement for all citizens across all areas, whether gang-controlled or state-run.
Although operations may be becoming more technical and efficient, there is no evidence of maras becoming higher level criminal organisations in the league of other transnational cartels. Homicide rates per hodnuras, by country Zoom in Original png, 69k. In the longer term, defusing gang violence will depend on implementation of various overlapping policy innovations, several of which are lry below. It is time we freed ourselves from this plague Francisco Flores, as quoted in Hume Thousands of suspected gang members were arrested for minor drug possession in in Guatemala.
Guatemala antimarqs provides an example of rhetorical securitization. Hide Footnote Taxi drivers in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, are favoured extortion targets, and are forced to pay the gangs who control the areas where their pick-up stations are located: Hide Footnote During the El Salvador gang truce, ldy local businesses reached their own informal agreements with the maras.
4. Case studies
Seventeen people were killed and fifteen wounded in Mejicanos, El Salvador, on 20 Junewhen a mini-bus was burned; passengers trying to escape were shot at. But the public and political responses to them, rooted in stigmatisation of the poor and a blind hknduras in the effects of tough security measures, have worsened violence and levels of social animosity.
In this way, securitization is a socially constructed and self-referential practice. Desktop version Mobile version.
In particular, mara leaders were surreptitiously sought out by both main parties for support during the campaigns as the political establishment competed for their captive votes. Hide Footnote Ely monitoring of these efforts would help to antimxras their effectiveness, and the extent to which they could be copied. Results of the poll taken at the end of and can be found here http: The dramatic drop in homicides observed in El Salvador during the month truce, however, provides strong evidence of the impact of maras on murder rates: Solo en84 taxistas fueron asesinados.
As a former gang member explained: During the early s, economic adjustment policies raised poverty, spurring migrant flows north. Crime and violence related to youth gangs were publicly discussed for the first time in the presidential election campaign. In this way, the regime also makes sure that the audience receives the securitizing move as intended. Within a week, homicidal violence dropped from fourteen to six murders a day. It also periodically affects mobility in Guatemala, where bus drivers, ticket inspectors and passengers were killed between andcausing many bus routes to stop services in gang-run areas.
Overview of government discourse and policies towards gangs per nonduras, Guatemala Credits Sources: Furthermore, the Honduran antijaras were overburdened with the large amount of crimes committed by children and adolescents.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras | Crisis Group
Executive Summary Born in the aftermath of civil war and boosted by mass deportations from the U. A total of transportation workers were killed between and in El Salvador. To a lesser extent than in El Salvador, policy-makers played an interesting role in accepting the public discourse by drafting several anti-gang proposals in the Congress of Guatemala; however, no proposal ever passed the legislative body Ranum The broader sexual violence in society and the particular abuses within gangs do not appear antkmaras have deterred girls from joining the maras.
The Construction of the Maras: More specifically, the mass media played a significant role in three ways: